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 Useful Information / Types of Blindness
Cataract :-
Protein and water make up most of the lens in a person’s eye. Protein is arranged in such a way as to let light pass through and focus on the retina. A cataract forms when some of the protein clumps together, clouding small areas of the lens and blocking some light from reaching the retina, interfering with vision. Cataracts usually occur as people age. However, some cataracts are congenital or develop during childhood. Secondary cataracts most often occur in people with other condition, such as diabetes. Traumatic cataracts may occur following an eye injury immediately or years later.
 
Glaucoma :-
Glaucoma generally affects older people. This happens when fluids in the eye build up and cause too much pressure in the eye, damaging important nerves, etc. To know what a person feels like with glaucoma, think of how your eyes feel after coming out of a swimming pool with a lot of chlorine in it. (This does not cause glaucoma, but makes the eyes feel as a person does with glaucoma).
 
Retinal Detachment :-
A retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from its normal position. This is a very serious condition usually and causes blindness unless treated. A detachment can occur anywhere in the field of vision where the retina may be weakened. Weakness in the retina may occur as a result of a number of things including; injury, previous cataract surgery, glaucoma, nearsightedness, family history, or previous detachment in the other eye. Symptoms of retinal detachment are flashing lights, floaters and what appears to be gray/black curtain moving across the field of vision.
 
Total Blindness :-
80% of legally blind people can see something, though those born totally blind can’t really express what they see, as they have no concept of color or light. Those that go blind later in life can more accurately explain what they can or cannot see. Total Blindness may occur due to any number of things, some we do not even know.
 
Diabetic Retinopathy :-
One of the leading causes of blindness, Diabetic Retinopathy occurs due to complications from diabetes. It causes blurred, patchy vision in areas that are damaged due to changes in the small blood vessels that nourish the eye. In advance stages, connective scare tissue forms in association with vessel growth causing addition distortion and blurriness and over time, this tissue can shrink causing Retinal Detachment.
 
Macular Degeneration :-
This is another leading cause of blindness, especially in older people. Macular Degeneration results from the deterioration of the macula, a portion of the retina responsible for clear sharp vision.
 
Retinitis Pigmentosa :-
This is a disease that usually begins when a person is young and gets worse as they get older, often leaving them blind as adults. In the beginning, the person with retinitis pigmentosa may have trouble seeing at night. Later their "field of vision" or the amount they can see in each eye gets less and less. Scientists are not sure exactly how it forms, but at this time there is no cure.
 
Nystagmus :-
Nystagmus is characterized by an involuntary movement of the eyes, which may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious, conditions that limit vision, like Achromatopsia. Nystagmus may be one of several infantile types or may be acquired later in life.
 
 
 
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SOCIAL TRUST FOR THE VISUALLY HANDICAPPED
Parvaiyatror Kudi Iruppu Paguthi,
Anjugam Nagar,Kolapakkam Village, Vandaloor, Kancheepuram - 600 127.
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